The Indian and Chinese disputes always emerge after some period of time. It is mostly due to the Expansion Policy of China. China has this policy of capturing the land of neighbouring countries and then taking control over them. Below are some of the disputes or controversies which has occurred between India and China so far.
Aksai Chin Border Issue
- Aksai Chin is a largely uninhabited area. In 1841 Sikhs invaded Tibet with an army but were defeated by the Chinese forces and then in turn entered Ladakh. Later the land remained disputed and the border was not demarcated. So, the Askai Chin Area remained undefined.
- In 1865 and 1897, Johnson line and Johnson-Ardagh Line was proposed as the border lines showing Aksai Chin to be the part of India. It was later denied by the Chinese.
- In 1899, Britain proposed a revised boundary. Initially suggested by Macartney and developed by the Governor General of India Lord Elgin, named as Macartney MacDonald Line. But Chinese government did not respond to it.
- In 1913-14, The McMohan Line (boundary between India and Tibet then) was proposed even Tibet did not object to any other portion of the McMahon line but again was refused by China.
- Although From 1917 to 1933, the “Postal Atlas of China“, published by the Government of China in Peking had shown the Aksai Chin in India.
- At the time of Indian Independence in 1947 Aksai Chin was the part of India but Chinese government never admitted it to be the part of India. When Nehru wrote a memo directing that the maps of India be revised to show definite boundaries on all frontiers. Up to this point, the boundary in the Aksai Chin sector, based on the Johnson Line, had been described as “undemarcated”.
- In 1962 Sino-Indian War, China attacked India and quickly captured the two territories which was Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh. China Then declared a unilateral ceasefire. It retained control of Aksai Chin and withdraw from Arunachal Pradesh, although not recognizing the border.
- Western Sector (Aksai Chin): Administrated by China(Since 1962) but claimed by India ( 38000 sq Miles)
Tibet Border Issue and Dalai Lama’s Refuge in India
- In 1913, Tibet declared its Independence form China. Then in 1951, the Tibetans signed a seventeen-point agreement reaffirming China’s sovereignty over Tibet and providing an autonomous administration led by Dalai Lama.
- In 1951, An armed conflict was underway in Tibet between Tibet and China. The Tibetans were fighting for the autonomy of Tibet.
- In march 1, 1959 the Chinese government extended an invitation to the 14th Dalai Lama to attend a theatrical performance. After the refusal by Dalai Lama, the Chinese insisted him to attend the ceremony in secrecy without his regular bodyguards.
- Tibetan officials feared that the Chinese were conspiring to abduct or imprison Dalai Lama. This led to the beginning of Lhasa uprising of 1959. Tibetans prepared for armed conflicts.
- On March 17, the Dalai Lama disguised himself as a soldier and escape to India. He traveled 15 days on foot over the Himalayan mountains.
- On March 31, Dalai Lama reached India still unsure if he would be granted asylum. But he was then given asylum by Nehru (then Prime Minister).
- Dalai Lama is now living in exile in India from that time onward. Due to this, the relations between India and China worsened because China used to consider Dalai Lama as Splittist and was supported by India.
Arunachal Pradesh Border Issue
- In 1962 Sino-Indian War, China attacked India and quickly captured the two territories which was Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh. China Then declared a unilateral ceasefire, retained control of Aksai Chin and withdraw from Arunachal Pradesh, although not recognizing the border.
- China Still shows the parts of
- Eastern Sector (Arunachal Pradesh): Administrated by Indian but claimed by China (90000 sq Miles)
- Sikkim was an independent country before being united with India. In 1975, Sikkimese monarchy held referendum, in which the Sikkimese voted in favour of joining India as its integral part.
- At the time China protested and regarded it as illegal. Only in 2003 China accepted Sikkim as Indian Territory. But the border between the northernmost point (“The Finger”) between China and India (Sikkim), still subjects of dispute and military activity.
- Stapled Visas: In 2009, China began issuing stapled visas to residents of Jammu and Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh, provoking a strong protest from India.
- One of India’s growing concerns in the last decade or so was is China’s ever-expanding sphere of geopolitical influence in the Indian Ocean as China is increasing trade with Africa, Latin America/Caribbean etc.
- Dam on Bhramputra River: China is planning to build dam in the Tsangpo river which flows as Bhramaputra river in India. China is doing this to control the water flow of the river in India.
- India-China clash 2020: In June 2020, Indian and Chinese troops engaged in a brawl in the Galwan River valley which reportedly led to the death of 20 Indian Soldiers. Claims have been made of death of 40+ Chinese Soldiers but such claims have been denied by Chinese authorities.
Click here to see defence related posts